Asian Creatures

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Mythology Resources

Creatures: African * American * Arthurian * Asian * Celtic * Classical * European * Germanic * Judeo-Christian * Middle Eastern * Oceanic
Spirits: African * American * Arthurian * Asian * Celtic * Classical * European * Germanic * Judeo-Christian * Middle Eastern * Oceanic
Mortals: African * American * Arthurian * Asian * Celtic * Classical * European * Germanic * Judeo-Christian * Middle Eastern * Oceanic
Locations: African * American * Arthurian * Asian * Celtic * Classical * European * Germanic * Judeo-Christian * Middle Eastern * Oceanic
Artifacts: African * American * Arthurian * Asian * Celtic * Classical * European * Germanic * Judeo-Christian * Middle Eastern * Oceanic

Burmese

  • chinthe - lion-like temple guardians; sometimes has human face
  • kephn - demon; floating head and stomach of a wizard; similar to Malaysian penenggalan
  • nat - malevolent nature spirits that can also protect; propitiated with sacrifices
    • akakasoh - tree spirits; type of nat; similar to hamadryads
    • boomasoh - tree spirits like hamadryads; nat type?
    • eingsaung - house nat or guardian
    • la - nats or human souls
    • saba-leippya - field nats
    • shekkasoh - tree spirits; like hamadryads
    • thien - rain nats; star spirits; fight using lightning
  • seiktha - evil spirits that live in trees

Cambodian

  • arak - family guardian spirit that lives in tree or in the home
  • pray - evil invisible spirits that live in trees; souls of those dead unnaturally

Chinese

  • Bai Ze - white beast that gave emperor knowledge of all 11,520 supernatural creatures (Japanese hakutaku/kutabe)
  • celestial stag - talking stag that lived in mines and tried to get people to take it to surface in exchange for riches; if it gets to surface it turns into diseased ooze
  • Chan - giant clam monster; creates underwater palaces when it exhales
  • Ch'ang Hao - king of snakes; could change size
  • chiang-liang - panther with long, hoofed legs; tiger head with human face; snake between its teeth
  • ch'iang shih - monster of evil spirits of unburied corpse; breath causes death
  • chiai tung/hai chiai/sin you/kai tsi/kai tsu - unicorn; horse body reddish-yellow in color; black horn; tells guilty from innocent
  • chin chia - guardian spirit of scholastic achievement
  • ch'ou-t'i - hybrid beast with head at each end
  • ch'uan-t'ou people - humanoids with bird heads and bat wings; catch fish from river
  • dogs of fo - guardian lions with wings, dog heads, and feathered tails
  • dragon horse - horse with dragon head; divine messenger; lives in water
  • dragon turtle - hybrid of dragon and turtle (turtle with dragon head)
  • Fei Lian/Feng Bo - Wind Lord; head of sparrow, bull horns, stag legs, leopard spots, serpent tail
  • fenghuang - mythical bird (feng = males; huang = females; sometimes blurred into single female entity); like phoenix; king of birds; power sent from heaven
  • gui xian - evil spirits or demons; souls of suicides or drownings
  • gwei-huo - ghost light
  • hai ho shang - fish or merman
  • hsiao - humanoid with head of bird and tail of dog, but human-like face
  • hsien - demons or faeries; invisible or shapeshifting
  • hsieng-t'ien - monster that fought against gods (gets decapitated); face in chest (like Greek acephali); wanders in search of its head
  • hsi-hsue-kuei - blood-sucking demon/vampire/ghost
  • hu fa (Buddhist) - guardian spirits that protect faithful from evil (call dharmapala in India)
  • hu hisen - fox spirits that like to look like young women
  • hui - giant dog with man's head
  • huli jing - fox spirits; similar to faeries or kitsune
  • i-mu kuo yan - one-eyed giants
  • jiang shi/hopping corpse/chiang-shi/kiang-shi/kuang-shi - so-called Chinese vampire; animated corpse that hops around and absorbs qi; grows more powerful with age
  • Kua Fu - tribe of giants that aided Chi You against Huang Di (Yellow Emperor)
  • kuei - evil ghost/demon; hungry ghost from improper burial
    • wu ch'ang kuei - messengers of hell; male or female souls of those dead of grief or suicide
  • kw'en - giant fish several miles long that could turn into p'eng
  • long/lung - dragons; snake bodies, horse heads; some can change shape; evolve over course of 3000 years; spirits of water and sky, symbol of gods' rain-giving powers; possibly organized by color, or else 8 species; one of four protective beasts (others are tortoise, unicorn, and phoenix); 117 scales (81 male, 36 female); voices like jingling bells; have a pearl of wisdom in their heads (dragon jewel); can be over 100' long or the size of a silkworm; keen sight; need moisture; eat arsenic and swallows; travel along long mei (dragon paths which bring fortune, like ley lines)
  • lwan/lwan shui - large pheasant that can change colors
  • mei - tree spirits
  • Moon Rabbit/Jade Rabbit - rabbit that lives on moon (also in Japanese and Korean folklore)
  • nieh-erh kuo yan - race with tiger stripes and very long ears that hang down to their waists
  • nine-headed bird - bird of ill omen; demon that kidnaps girls
  • p'eng - giant bird; metamorphized form of kw'en; wings could block out sky from sight
  • penghou - tree spirit
  • ping feng - boar with human head or head at each end
  • pixiu - winged lion protector; earth and sea; has either one horn (pi ya) or two horns (tian lu)
  • pyong - giant bird, roc-like
  • qilin/kilin - one-horned stag (Chinese unicorn); same as kirin; good omen
    • kioh twan - as qilin but green and with horse's tail and horn on muzzle
  • san-shen kuo yan - monstrous race that have one head on three bodies
  • san-shou kuo yan - monstrous race that have three heads on their bodies
  • shang yang - rain bird; one-legged; draws water with beak and sprays over fields
  • shinseen - tiny spirits appearing as old men with long beards
  • sun ravens - ten celestial birds that spread light and warmth of the sun
  • shen - benevolent spirits, human souls
    • shen hsien - spirits that take human form to perform a task
  • t'ao t'ieh - dog with one head and two bodies; greed and gluttony
  • Three-Legged Toad - woman (Ch'ang O) who stole elixir of immortality which transformed her; eats away at moon where she now lives
  • tiangou - dog/meteor that eats sun during eclipse
  • ti-chiang - celestial bird; crimson feathers; no eyes or beak; six legs
  • t'ien kuo - celestial dog that feeds on small children or the moon; plumed fiery tail
  • water monkey - monkey that lives in lakes and drags people in to drown
  • ting ling kuo yan - monstrous race of men with long hair and horse legs
  • were-tiger - also found in India, Malaysia, Japan, and Indonesia
  • xian - spirits or immortals in general; usually only benevolent ones; possibly sorcerers
  • xiang yao - vile serpent with nine human heads; travels with dragon Gong Gong
  • xiezhi - lion-like fire-eating dog that guards against disaster; unicorn horn (Korean haetae)
  • yu-min kuo yan - monstrous race with wings instead of arms, covered in feathers; shy
  • yu nu - jade maidens, faeries, compass spirits; five attendants of His Wang Mu

Hindu/Indian

  • acheri - ghost of little girl that spreads disease
  • aditya - sun gods
  • Ananta/Sesha - hydra
  • angiri/angirasa - divine messengers that give fire; guardian angels; named after king of Pitris
  • apsaras - celestial water nymphs/muses; rule over gambling; guide fallen to paradise (like valkyries); wives of gods
  • asipatra - sword-wing (scythe-like) bird with knife-like talons; tortures sinners in underworld
  • asrapa - blood-sucking witch attendant of Kali
  • astomi - race that survives by smelling flowers
  • asura - opponents of the devas, sometimes called demons but also with social powers
  • asurakumara (Jain) - underworld demons that cause rain and thunder
  • betikhan - goat-man (faun-like)
  • bhuta/bhut - ghosts, particularly wicked ghosts (like Roman larvae) or malignant spirits/demons/goblins; cast no shadow, may take animal form
  • bonga - evil spirit, usually the transformed ghost of human; malicious females that inhabit rivers, hills, woods; sometimes helpful
  • buru - 15' long Himalayan drake
  • cauga (Andaman Islands) - evil spirits
  • chedipe - female vampire; enters house at night and drinks blood through men's toes; rides tiger
  • chordewa (Bengali) - bhut or witch that turns into a vampire cat
  • churel/chudail/churail - hideous female ghost, or beautiful charming ghost; backwards feet; drinks blood of young men like a vampire; possibly kind of rakshasa; prowl graveyards
  • chuta - forest demons
  • daitya - asura race; sons of Diti; similar or same as Danavas; giant demons
  • dakini/ashrapa (Buddhist) - blood-drinking female demons; may be beautiful maidens or have lion heads; serve Kali; can fly
  • danava - asura race; sons of Danu; driven under sea when defeated by gods
  • dasyus - dark primeval demon dwarfs; asuras
  • deva/sura - a god, usually a nature god (especially solar gods). Called suras in the Vedas
  • devata - lesser guardian spirit
  • dewa (Buddhist) - tree spirit
  • dharmapala (Buddhist) - guardian spirits that protect faithful from evil (call Hu Fa in China)
  • dhrana - hydra
  • dund - headless, handless, footless rider
  • gana - attendants of Shiva; led by Ganesha; possibly dwarfs
  • gandharva - male nature spirits, choristers in heaven, fought nagas, pursued apsaras; some part animal (such as bird/horse)
  • gayal - male vampire; risen because it didn't have proper burial rites, so it harasses its family
  • guhyaka - race of giants; troglodytes that guard treasure caves of Kubera
  • Garuda - giant bird that serves as vehicle of Vishnu; enemy of nagas
  • jala-turga - water horse
  • Jal Dev - water demon, possibly a crocodile
  • jurua/juruwin (Andaman Islands) - evil invisible (or white) sea spirits that devour things that fall in water; may attack with invisible spears
  • kalakeya - asura race; descendants of Kala; live undersea
  • Keshi/Keshin - evil giant horse killed by Vishnu
  • kimpurushas - lion-faced men (possibly same as kinnaras); attendants of Indra
  • kinnaras - celestial bird-men (or horse-headed); similar to gandharvas (possibly same as centaurs)
  • kirata - monster race that are tiger from waist up; live in deep forests; cannibals that prey on humans; females are beautiful golden color and seduce human men
  • kirtimukha/Face of Glory - giant disembodied head; serpent-like hair (similar to Chinese t'ao-tieh)
  • kollimalaikanniyarka - nymphs that educate Kattavarayan; mountain maidens
  • kolli vai pisaasu - possibly ghost light; a pisaasu (ghost) with burning embers in its mouth
  • kumbhandas - wind spirits
  • lau (Andaman Islands) - hideous terror and death demons of the jungle
  • loha-mukha - iron-faced giants
  • Mada - giant monster with huge fangs that eats any kind of creature
  • mahoragas - snake-headed celestial musicians (or giant snakes)
  • makara - sea beast mount of Varuna
  • marut - storm gods; sons of Rudra; attendants of Indra; 180 or 49 or 27
  • masan - black disease demon; cloud of ash
  • Masani - a vampire
  • naga - shape-shifting snakes; equivalent of Chinese dragons; carry elixir of immortality; like in Patala
  • nara - winged horses
  • naravirala/purushamriga - man-cat (sphinx)
  • nee-gued - yeti
  • nivatakavachas - asura race living under ocean; powerful magic and weaponry; vanquished by Arjuna
  • pani - demon class; steal cows
  • paulomas - cruel children of Kasyapa and Puloma
  • pey - monstrous cannibal vampires covered in shaggy hair; females are alakai, iruci, and picacu; serve Yama
  • pishacha/pisaca - cannibal and disease demons that prey on living and dead; dark skin, red eyes; nocturnal, live in graveyards, forests, deserted places; similar but crueler than rakshasas; shapeshifting, invisibility, possession; usually female; disrupt religion and cause lethargy
  • pitri - ancestral spirits; represent evolution of human powers
  • preta - hungry ghost
  • rakshasa - cannibal demons (sometimes a kind of asura) with insatiable hunger. Shapeshifters that can assume any form. Possibly giants like ogres or titans, possibly vampires. Possibly a broad category that may encompass yakshas
    • brahmaparush/bramapursh - rakshasa type that eats intestines, or possibly entire victim
    • geyal/gayal - moster dangerous rakshasas; vengeful spirits (usually female); may drink blood; some possess
    • jigarkhwar - rakshasa type with paralyzing gaze; eats blood and liver
  • rishi - mind-born sons of Brahma; divine sages
  • sadhyas - occupy a region above the gods
  • sankchinni - beautiful female tree spirits, though not benevolent; shimmering white in color
  • sarngika - bird species
  • sevienda - phoenix; lives caterpillar in ashes
  • sharameyas - four-eyed underworld dogs
  • suparna - bird people, like Garuda; winged people?
  • timingila - sea monster that swallows whales
  • Uchaishravas - seven-headed horse; flies
  • vanara - monkey people
  • vasu - eight elemental gods
  • vetala - demon that possesses corpses; vampire-like (later called baital)
  • vidyadharas - possibly mischevious air spirits (sylphs?)
  • vrikshaka/vyantara (also Jain) - benevolent tree nymphs; like dryads
  • were-tiger - also found in Malaysia, China, Indonesia, and Japan
  • yaksha - nature spirits (mountains/forests); either peaceful or cannibals like rakshasas (or possibly a kind of rakshasa)
  • yogini - eight female attendants of Durga

Japanese

  • akkorokamui (Ainu) - fish or octopus monster
  • akurojin-no-hi - ghostly flame that brings illness
  • amatsu-otome - angel-like females; similar to apsaras
  • amefurashi - monster that looks like a child; controls rain
  • amefurikozo - weather spirit that appears as a child
  • Amemasu/Ō-amemasu (Ainu) - giant whale/fish that lives in lake
  • Aoandon - spirit that appears as blue human with two horns
  • aosaginohi - glowing night heron
  • azukiarai - ghostly noise at river; those that approach fall into river; usually not seen, but may appear as grotesque bald man with crooked teeth and yellow eyes
  • bakeneko - supernatural cat; haunts households, create ghostly fire, walks on hind legs; may eat people and take their place
  • baku - eats nightmares
  • basan - large bird with ghostly fire in its mouth
  • buruburu - ghost of fear appearing as one-eyed old person; attaches to victim's back and causes chills
  • Centipede - giant monster that preys on men and cattle; Hidesato kills it
  • gaki - hungry ghost
  • gashadokuro - giant (fifteen times human height) skeletons formed of bones of those that starved to death; bite people in half; cause ringing in the ears
  • hannya - vampire-like woman possessed by demon; eats children and drinks blood
  • hai riyo/tobi tatsu/schachi hoko - bird with dragon head; similar to Chinese ying lung
  • Harionago/Harionna - female ghoulish monster; beautiful but her hair is tipped with barbs which she whips to trap men that laugh with her
  • hibagon - yeti
  • hisa-me-shiko-me - hideous she demons from land of the dead
  • hitodama - newly dead soul which appears as ghostly fire (will o' the wisp)
  • ikiryo - manifestation of soul of still living person as ghost (vengeful)
  • inugami - spirit dog; can serve master or possess people; may enact vengeance for master
  • isohime - giant mermaid that torments those captured from sinking ships
  • Isonade - giant shark monster; uses hooked tail to drag people beneath sea
  • ittan-momen - ghostly spirit that attacks at night
  • jikininki - hungry ghost that eats corpses; spirit of greedy, selfish people; some may live fake lives by day
  • jinmenju - tree that has fruit of laughing human heads
  • Jinshin-Mushi - earthquake beetle
  • Jinshin Uwo - giant eel fish
  • kami - spirits (especially nature spirits); gods
  • kappa/gataro - water spirit; child-sized frog/monkey man with turtle shell and scales; water-filled bowl on head is source of power
  • Karura (Buddhist) - fire breathing men with eagle beak; based on Hindu Garuda
  • kasha - vampire that digs up and eats corpses
  • kekkai - blood spirit formed during improper birth; haunts places and scares people
  • kirin - one-horned stag (Japanese unicorn); same as qilin; good omen
  • kirni - bird/griffin
  • kodama/kodoma - tree spirit similar to hamadryad
  • koropokkuru (Ainu) - small people that predate Ainu; good fishers, agile; didn't like to be seen by humans, but would trade with them
  • kubikajiri - head-eating ghst; searches for its lost head in graveyards
  • kuda-gitsune/kanko - rat-sized fox that lives in pipe; summoned by wizards
  • kudan - body of bull with human head; three eyes on each side, row of horns from spine; always spoke truth
  • majin - demon men or magic workers; similar to Hindu asura or jinn
  • Moshiriikkwechep - giant fish that supports that world on its back; sends shockwaves when it writhes creating tsunamis and earthquakes
  • Namazu - giant catfish that causes earthquakes
  • ningyo - merfolk; protective sea spirit
  • noppera-bo - faceless ghosts that frighten people; sorcerers can turn into these
  • nue - monkey head, raccoon dog body, tiger legs, snake tail (Japanese chimera); can turn into black cloud; brings misfortune
  • nukekubi - appear to be normal people; at night their heads detach and fly in search of prey; scream and bite people
  • nuppeppo - chunk of dead flesh that walks by itself at midnight
  • nure-onna - snake woman that lives in water; has woman's head; pretty hair; up to 300m long; may have claws
  • obake/bakemono - supernatural beings, shapeshifters, usually alive, sometimes as ghosts; often animals (kitsune, tanuki) that turn into humans; possibly same as or a kind of yokai; goblins
    • hitotsume-kozo - one-eyed monsters the size of children that look like Buddhist monks; long tongues; frighten people and tell loud people to be quiet, but aren't harmful
  • okubi - giant disembodied heads that float in sky as omens of natural disasters
  • oni - demon ogres
    • Amanojaku - either a type or a specific oni; kidnaps, flays, and eats a girl and wears her skin
    • sazae-oni - crustacean oni/obake (shellfish ogre)
    • ushi-oni/gyuki - cow-headed oni (Japanese minotaur)
  • onibi - ghost light; possibly created by kitsune
  • orochi/eight-forked serpent - eight-headed serpent
  • Phantom Cat - monstrous cat that killed people; similar to Celtic Capula
  • pheng - giant bird that can eat a whole camel, like a roc
  • Raicho - giant rook that calls storms; thunderbird
  • Raiju - thunder beast; cat or tanunki or monkey or weasel body, but of lightning or fire; serves Raijin
  • Samebito - shark man with black body and pointed beard
  • shachihoko - tiger-headed carp; possibly based on Hindu makara
  • shikigami - spirit that serves summoner like a familiar
  • shikome - wild women that tear men apart; similar to maenads
  • shojo - wild man; red skin and hair; wears seaweed and lives in water; amphibious
  • spider - giant monstrous creature, malevolent; unbreakable webs
    • Spider-Woman - spider that tried to overrun countryside with her children
    • Tsuchi-Gumo - semi-immortal giant spider; trapped in cave and smoked to death
  • takujui - animal with human head and spines; similar to Kudan
  • tatsu/ryu - 3-toed dragon similar to Chinese long; sea dragon
  • tsukumogami - spirit that is item come to life after 100 years
  • tennin (Buddhist) - nature spirits (females are tennyo--same as Indian apsaras--or tenshi) similar to angels/faeries; beautiful women that live in heaven; fly (possibly through use of magic kimonos or sometimes they have wings); some similarities to swan maidens
  • tsuchigumo - spider people, can use illusions
  • tsurube-otoshi - lives in treetops and swoops down on prey or scoops them up with bucket; sometimes oni, tengu, ghost fire, or disembodied head
  • umibozu - spirit of the sea; has large round head
  • uwabami - flying serpents
  • were-tiger - also found in India, Malaysia, China, and Indonesia
  • yamabito - giant hairy ape people
  • Yata Garasu - giant three-legged crow; messenger of gods
  • yato-no-kami - snake gods that bring disaster to those that see them
  • Yofune-nushi - sea monster
  • yokai - spirits including demons and ghosts, kitsune; obake class; creatures strange to humans; associated with fire
    • abura-sumashi - spirit (or ghost) that frightens people on mountains; short squat man
    • akaname - frog man with long tongue and clawed feet; sneaks into bathrooms and licks surfaces clean
    • akashita - hairy, clawed, long tongued creature with body hidden by black cloud
    • akateko - appears as child's hand hanging from tree
    • enenra - yokai made of smoke; takes human form when it leaves the bonfire; only virtuous can see it
    • futakuchi-onna - two-mouthed woman (second is in back of head beneath hair); a curse/disease transforms a human woman into this yokai; mouth screams and hair writhes if not fed
    • hiderigami - causes draught; sixty-ninety centimeters long; eyes on top of head; one arm, one eye; moves very fast (Chinese Batsu)
    • hone-onna - skeleton women that lure men into sex and drain their life away
    • Kamaitachi - wind spirit that appears as three weasels
    • kitsune - fox; has magical powers, shapeshifts (may or may not hide tail in human form); some can possess people; may have as many as nine tails (grow more tails after living 1000 years); those with nine tails are kyūbi no kitsune which become all seeing
      • myobu - benevolent celestial messengers of Inari
      • nogitsune - mischievous field foxes
    • mujina - badger; shapeshifter; may take form of faceless ghost (noppera-bo); trickster
    • nurikabe - appears as wall at night that impedes people
    • rokurokubi - human-looking monsters that can stretch their necks long at night and change faces to look like oni; at night they are tricksters and spies
    • satori - mountain yokai that reads thoughts
    • tanuki - raccoon dog shapeshifter; trickster but gullible; jolly
    • tengu - form of birds of prey or mixed humanoid form; dangerous (sometimes evil) mountain/forest spirits; ascetics
    • uwan - disembodied voice that inhabits old temples
  • yomotsu-shikome - eight hags of the underworld
  • yōsei - word meaning faerie
  • yuki-onna - ghostly woman of pale skin; appears on snowy nights; beautiful but ruthless killer; possibly vampire or succubus
  • yurei - ghosts of dead people; possibly a kind of obake
    • funayurei - ghosts of those dead at sea, or a ghost ship that creates others of its kind by sinking ships
    • gashadokuro - ghost of those that starved to death; giant skeleton that bites off heads
    • goryo - vengeful aristocrat ghosts
    • konakijijii - ghost of baby left to die in woods; lures people by crying; cannot put it down if pick it up, and it crushes you
    • kubikajiri - headless ghost that eats heads of others
    • mononoke - poltergeist
    • onryo - vengeful ghosts (over-the-top revenge)
    • ubume - mother that dies in childbirth and returns to care for children
    • zashiki-wararshi - ghosts of children

Korean

  • Chollima/Chonma - winged horse too swift to ride
  • dokkaebi - sprite or goblin; mischievous but not harmful; often; one legged; cap of invisibility
  • dragon-carp - hybrid of dragon and carp that can talk
  • girin - one-horned stag (Korean unicorn); same as qilin; good omen
  • haetae - lion-like fire-eating dog that guards against disaster; unicorn horn (Chinese xiezhi)
  • hongaek - evil spirits that appear as noxious miasma at sites of disasters; they infect humans and feed off suffering
  • kumiho - nine-tailed fox; similar to kitsune or huli jing; shapeshifts into pretty girl to seduce men
  • kye-ryong/gye-ryong - chicken dragon (cockatrice?)
  • maek - as Japanese baku
  • mang - dragon similar to kioh-long
  • ryong - Korean dragon, similar to Chinese long
    • imogi - water serpent relatives of dragons; cursed not to become dragons (or else they're early dragons); large python-like creatures, may be benevolent
    • kyo - mountain dragon
    • yong - sky dragon like long
    • yo - hornless ocean dragon (sea serpent)
  • sal - evil spirit group; they can enter people during times of transition and make them sick
  • sangmun - evil spirits seen by those near death; attach to those without proper funeral rites
  • sillyong/sin - lesser spirits in general
  • tongbop - imps that enter houses hidden inside objects
  • Ungnyeo - bear that became a woman

Mongolian

  • anakhai - spirit of the dead that haunts former home
  • leongalli - lion-dragon or lion-cockerel dragon
  • mangas - man-eating immortal
  • poh - white unicorn with fangs and feet of a tiger; hunted tigers
  • tengri - gods
  • yek - demons that steal corpses to eat

Taiwan

Thai

  • con tram nu' o' c - giant water buffalo that can move quickly; lucky
  • elephant-tiger - elephant with tiger head; lives in jungle
  • kaluk - invisible tree spirits that must be consulted with before cutting trees
  • naga fireballs - ghost lights rising from river
  • nang-faa - bird faerie woman; type of phi-bird
  • phi phu - spirit that lives in person and makes them sorcerer; lets them shapeshift into animals; passed down but also contagious
  • thepnorasingh - man-lion (sphinx)
  • tipaka - winged horses

Tibetan

  • btsan - fierce demons
  • citipati - dancing skeleton demons
  • dakinis - female fairies; consorts of nature gods
  • gnyan - disease spirits of forests and mountains
  • gtod - lords of stone
  • kere - aggressive unicorn
  • klu - water gods
  • krasyy - old women shapeshifters that suck through viscera; fly at night; like to feed on babies or excrement
  • ma-mo - female disease demons; black skin and clothes
  • nan - tree/stone spirits
  • ngam - demons; opposed to gods (ye)
  • phi - nature spirits; same as Burmese nats
  • sa-bdag/sadags - protective nature spirits; earth movers
  • serou - aggressive unicorn
  • sri - evil spirits that live in dark places such as caves, tombs; devour the dead and dying
  • thags yang - demon in human or tiger form; tears victims apart
  • tsan - sky gods
  • tsopo - aggressive unicorn
  • ye - gods; opposed to demons (ngam)
  • yeti/dzu-teh - abominable snowman (called meh-teh in Nepal)

Vietnamese

  • chu-uha - household guardian spirit that lives in a jug
  • co-hon - evil spirits of those that died violent deaths
  • con-ion - evil spirits that possess women to cause stillbirths
  • con-ma-dau - demons that cause smallpox
  • con-tinh - evil tree spirits that drive others mad; souls of dead girls
  • duc-ba - nature spirits; Three Mothers (Forest, Air, Waters) created by Jade Emperor
  • incus - vampire that sucks blood through an antennae on its nose
  • rồng/long - dragon; similar to Chinese long; brings rain; combines crocodile, bird, snake, lizard